Getting Lost in Dublin

It is a very good thing that I am not trying to go to the market or else this story would have a different ending, probably of me getting lost somewhere in Dublin and never being heard from again. Good for the kid for finding his way through Dublin. 

Mapping Araby

Instead of just looking at Dublin, I tried to map the foreign references in Araby. I ended up with 3 places- Arabia from the reference to The Arab's Farewell to His Steed, France because of the french name of the Cafe Chantant, and England because of the English accents of the stall merchants. I noticed that in regards of the order they are presented in the story, the references go from the furthest away and get progresssively closer to Dublin. I think this parallels the boy's collapse of his naivete. When we're young, it seems like the world is so close and reachable, but I think that as the boy became more aware of 'reality' at least in the 'seeing through the mirages that make things seem magical' sense, the more he sees how small his world actually is. He said, "the syllables of the word Araby were called to me through the silence in which my soul luxuriated and cast an Eastern enchantment over me." (2) The boy saw Araby as this magical place, but when it turned out to be quite the opposite, it changed how he saw the world and himself. 

Even if that wasn't Joyce's purpose with the foreign references, they do give the sense of how far away from home the boy is. When the poem is mentioned, we're reminded that it's not his father he's waiting for, it's his uncle, which seems out of place and furthermore, he's drunk and forgot about him, which isn't very 'home-y' at all. And then at Araby, it's definitely not what he's used to, which is the little square that he's used to calling home, but it's also a let down because although they are different places, they aren't magical places at all. 

Conservatism in The Owl

The tone of The Owl is an interesting contrast to the modern, radical tone that categorizes the majority of the magazines found in the MJP. The Owl, edited by Robert Graves, only had three issues, two published in 1919 and one published as The Winter Owl in 1923. The Owl had difficulty taking off for multiple reasons, but one of  the main reasons was because of its refusal to take a modernist approach which gave it an anarchronistic label.

      Both the cover and the foreword of the first magazine only help to give it a conservative feel. The cover and many of the illustrations within the magazine remind one of illustrations that would function well in a children's book. They are generally bright and innocent illustrations and contrast the sharp, new art often seen in more modern magazines. The foreword ( establishes that the magazine has no intent of making a political stance or attaching to any movement. Indeed, the magazine issues are mostly filled with poetry that avoids the hot topics of war and modernism and clings to topics of love and nature. Unfortunately, Graves concept was too escapist and conservative and eclectic to last long in the midst of the modern magazine movement. 

A Voyant Perspective of The Crisis and The Egoist

I compared two magazines, The Crisis and The Egoist. The Crisis is always an interesting magazine to look at because of its vast amount of magazine issues and its distinction as an NAACP house magazine that acted as a voice for the black community of America in the racially turbulent times of the 20th century. I wanted to compare it to The Egoist because though The Egoist put a focus on the promotion of modernist literature, according to MJP, it also continued in the vein of The Freewomen by addressing social and philosophical issues. I thought that perhaps The Egoist would discuss issues surrounding race in its social or political discussions. 

I decided to search these magazines for race-related words such as "colored" "negro" and "nigger." Not surprisingly, "colored" and "negro" are among the most frequently used words in The Crisis. "Colored"  and "negro" are almost always among the top five most distinctive words in each issue of The Crisis.

My word trend search of "Nigger" showed me that it is rarely used more than once per issue by The Crisis and from looking at its usage in context; I was able to determine it was never reflected as as an appropriate title for black people. 

The results from my search for race-related words in The Egoist were surprising. Though the magazine's most frequently used words are "life" and "man," hardly any mention is made of the "colored" man or the lives of a negro or negroes. "Colored" was not once used in reference to a person or people, and "negro" was used less than 15 times in the entire corpus and never used more than twice in an issue. "Nigger" was used twice in the entire corpus and it was difficult to tell from the context whether the writer using it was regarding it as an appropriate title for a black person or not. 

I wanted to look at the word usage of these words in the corpus containing all nine magazines, but I couldn't get the download to work.  I assume however that the majority of the usage of these words would be found in The Crisis.  

Love, Poetry, and Feminism

At first, I planned on looking up the frequency of "love" in Poetry and BLAST, but I couldn't get BLAST to work. My second plan, then, was to look up love in Poetry and The Freewoman. I thought it would be interesting to see how love was discussed in these two magazines with two very different agendas. Originally, I had expected Poetry to mention love quite a bit. This is maybe a little stereotypical of poetry, but I certainly figured that it love would make an appearence frequently in the various selections of poetry. In contrast, I figrued that The Freewoman wouldn't discuss love too often during its discussion of more politically relevant topics.

I was quite surprised by what I found in both magazines. The frequency with which love appeared in the two magazines was quite similar. In Poetry, love really wasn't discussed as much as I was expecting. There was really only one magazine that had a very high useage of the word. Similarly, in The Freewoman, love was discussed an average amount across all the issues, but there was one issue in particular where love was discussed a lot more. What is really interesting is that the frequencies were very similar. In Poetry, the highest frequency was 40/10,000. In The Freewoman, the frequency was 32/10,000. This was much more similar than I would have guessed.

What this showed me is that universal themes really are universal. I know that if I had looked at specific topics between the two magazines, I would have had different results. For instance, any of the topics in The Freewoman's political agenda would much likely not appear too often in Poetry. However, it seems that a universal topic doesn't escape the clutches of a political magazine, but it also doesn't steal the show in a more artistic realm.

Music in The Egoist and The Crisis

Brooke Boutwell and Miranda Dabney

Brooke and I chose the word Music  to look at in The Egoist and The Crisis.  We originally chose BLAST, but had some issues getting into Voyeur with BLAST, so we chose The Crisis to replace it.  

In The Egoist, some of the most frequent words used were life, man, and new.  From this, we can tell that the magaznie's focus was to talk about humanity and life, what happens in the lives of the readers or people like the readers.  The word "music" peaks in volume 5, issue 6, an issue which also references Poetry and The Little Review.  There are 25.75 uses of the word "music".  Among those mentions of music, there is an article about Debussey.  The issues tied for lowest number of "music" mentions, with zero mentions, are volume 1, issue 2; volume 5, issues 8 and 9; and volume 6, issue 4.

This lab helped us to explore more of what it means to close read using Voyeur tools.  Using the graphs and other tools to track words across different magazines helped to link what different issues focused on as well as figure out where certain words were more prevalent to narrow down issues and articles with the specific interest word.  

Space, empty space.

Looking for the word Space in our magazines, led me to a few revelations. At first, I haphazardly started looking through all of them, but after it crashed my chrome window I changed my mind. Before chrome went down though, I did get to see that space was essentially irrelevant to most of these magazines. In fact, the only interesting numbers or graphs were spawned from the Egoist and the poetry selections. Even then, it wasn't what I was looking for. I was hoping for some shreds of sci-fi, maybe some speculation about spaceflight. Alas, this tool--and others like it, seem to be best for confirming or denying the existence of what you are looking for in a text.  While I was looking for spaceflight, I found more about philosophical interpretations of space and time- as in the egoist. Whereas with most of the others there was little coherent use of the word space. The context aspect of voyant made this all too easy to determine. I feel like DH tools would allow one to look for elements or themes in a work without actually having to read about it. All you'd have to know is what keywords to use. 

Green and Yellow in The Egoist and The Crisis

Megan Grier and Katie Boul


We decided to look at the words yellow and green (our two favorite colors), in The Crisis and The Egoist.

We were surprised to find that in The Crisis, yellow was actually a frequently used word. Then, when we looked at the KWIC panel, it became apparent that yellow was actually referring to the Japanese race. Taking into account the fact that The Crisis was a magazine aimed towards the advancement of African Americans and therefore talked mainly about the issues of racism and prejudice, it actually made sense that yellow would be so frequently used. The word green was surprisingly used more frequently than yellow, but upon further investigation, it became clear that most of the usages were for last names, which skewed the data pretty significantly.

The use of the words yellow and green follow a similar trend in the Egoist as they do in the Crisis. Green occurs the most (12 times) in the February 1914 issue, and the primary user of the word is James Joyce in his first installment of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. In this volume, at least, green is never used as a last name, a distinction that does set it apart from the Crisis. Yellow is used a bit less, maxing out at 8 times in the December 1919 issue. Interestingly, James Joyce is, again, the author that employs the word yellow the majority of the times it appears in the magazine. The Joyce piece in this issue is Episode X of Ulysses.

One other note on the word yellow in the December 1919 issue: Voyant claims that the word yellow is used 8 times. However, when you search for the word in a PDF version of the document, it comes up 9 times. This must be an instance of the “dirty” data that Dr. Drouin referenced.

In regards to the entire corpus, green was still a pretty frequently used term, but again due to being a last name, so it’s not really a true representation of the term in the whole corpus. Yellow was used pretty frequently as well (though not as often as green). This probably has something to do with the fact that The Crisis, in which yellow was a frequently used term, accounts for a huge chunk of the corpus.

A question that came from this is if there would possibly be some way to filter out certain uses of a word. If we could’ve filtered out all uses of green as a last name, we would have gotten a better representation of the definition of the term that we were using. We’re not sure if that is already possible within Voyant, but it would be really neat to be able to filter out certain uses of words and I think it would help give a true representation of a term if you’re looking for a really specific term.