Araby

 

By mapping Araby I could see how long the boy's travel to get to the Bazaar was and it was long. Mapping the journey it was interesting to see where he traveled. Having gone to Ireland myself I remembered familiar places in Dublin and I can't believe that I didn't realize that places we probably passed were connected to Araby. So I find that really fascinating and it shows how mapping can help open up different views. By mapping Araby one can see how the story progresses and the feelings of the boy change. With the story being so short it’s not surprising that the journey of the boy felt short. Mapping out the journey I could see how the boy’s journey was actually long and it changed my view of how the boy began to change due to the coldness of reality. 

View Araby Map in a larger map

Map of Araby

I mapped the route from the boys house to the Araby Bazaar. I find it very interesting to see how far he had to travel to get to the bazaar and how far he was willing to travel for a girl. I am not sure if I mapped the route 100% correctly, but regardless the overall journey was rather large for a young boy. Today, the journey may not seem so far, but I imagine that it was much farther in his time.

View Araby Map in a larger map

Araby Lab

During our lab, I put place marks in places I thought corresponded with Joyce's story.  Also, I went to www.walkscore.com to look for a place that might serve as a market in Joyce's time.  My best guess (at the moment) is Pearse Square.  Take a look:

 

View Araby Route in a larger map

Map of "Araby" Journey

Here is a map showing the boy's walk down Buckingham St. to the tram, which he takes to Westland Row (now Pearse Station), and gets on a train (now the DART) to Sandymount, and then walks to the bazaar. It is color coded for mode of transportation (blue = walking; red = tram; green = train).

View Araby Map in a larger map

Life and Art

BLAST:

  • Most frequent: art, life, great, man, war
  • Most notable peaks: world, form, men, nature, new
  • Most distinctive: arghol, know, evadne, florence, black, war, blenner, crowd, multum, paintin

Interesting how it's about war, but life is a frequently used word, rather than death, which differs from the information we extrapolated from Little Review using Gephi.

  • Number of documents: 2
  • Longest word count: Blast 1
  • Highest vocabulary density: Blast 2

 

Tyro:

  • Most frequent: art, little, time, life, artist
  • Most notable peaks: painting, artist, la, life, little
  • Most distinctive: artist, english, great, modern, white, bestre, et, le, les, la

What does this say about the context?: Much like BLAST, there is a correlation between life and art.

  • Number of documents: 2
  • Longest word count: Tyro 2
  • Highest vocabulary density: Tyro 1

New Freewoman & Egoist

The reason I chose to look at these two journals in particular was the New Freewoman turned into the  Egoist. I wanted to note the similarities and the changes that were made between the two. I started by comparing man/men with woman/women and I also compared life/death. One of my finds was that there was a shift from the New Freewoman talking about women to men in the Egoist. Life and death were focused on about the same in both journals. 

In Freewoman the majority of the journal peaked woman and women, but changed towards the end. In the Egoist men and man were more frequent than women and woman. When comparing life and death by itself life was way above death and when comparing life and death with man and woman life was more often right along the same path as man. Death was still on the lower part of the scale. From these two points the journals are about life and the direction men are taking. Women was a focus for a short time, but men ultimately became dominant. The other interesting point in this is the Freewoman journal only had 13 documents where the Egoist had 74.

I then compared the more frequent words and the more notable peaks in the journals. In Freewoman the more frequent words were: man, men, life, women and new. The notable peaks were: make, little, say, things and think. In Egoist the frequent words were: life, man, new, said and time. The notable peaks were: given, way, course and le. 

I took two words from each journal and compared them together. The word new is more apparent in both journals and time is more dominate in the Egoist, but time, make and think are not as important in the Freewoman. It appears that the Egoist became a more forward thinking journal as soon as it moved away from the Freewoman.  

Identification and Verification

Part 1

1. Words

Poetry

  • Most frequent words: poetry, verse, poems, new, magazine
  • Most notable peaks: magazine, poets, monroe, men, poet
  • Most distinctive words: poetry, king, magazine, verse, volume, net, art, death, english, american...

The most obvious indication these words give is that Poetry revolves primarily around art and poetry, which is of course wholly unsurprising.  Digging a little deeper, however, I considered the fact that a magazine titled "Poetry" would contain so many mentions of its own subject matter.  In addition, it contains a very high usage of words like "verse" and "volume," which suggested to me that it was a far more self-referential periodical than one that simply published poems.  I formulated a prediction that the magazine was concerned with the discussion of poetry and poetics, which from a brief skim of the magazine seems to be more or less correct.

The Egoist

  • Most frequent words: life, man, new, said, time
  • Most notable peaks: new, given, way, course, le (?)
  • Most distinctive words: law, diomedes, interest, liberty, art, pleasure, goodwill, artist, progress, men, believe, think, mother, chastity, life, love, people, dedalus, dante

Based on the word frequencies, The Egoist seems to be largely concerned with the human spirit, with such lofty questions as life and mortality, love, art, pleasure, morality, and time.  In short, The Egoist is truly quite the egoist among magazines!  Skimming over the material, I got the impression that the magazine wants very badly to be an authority on matters of art, morality, politics to some extent, and living.  It is a rather humanist magazine.  (Sidenote: I can only interpret the frequency of le to mean that the magazine contains an overabundance of French expressions which, along with the many Greek mythological references, only serves to support my theory!)

2. Documents

Poetry

  • Number of documents: 123
  • Longest issues: Volume 17.6, Volume 14.3
  • Highest vocabulary density: Volume 2.4, Volume 1.4

The Egoist

  • Number of documents: 74
  • Longest issues: Volume 1.6, Volume 1.16
  • Higest vocabulary density: Volume 5.8, Volume 5.9

3. Graphs

Poetry

  • Man, Woman

  • New, Old

The Egoist

  • Man, Woman

  • New, Old

"Man" and "woman" for Poetry is easy!  The first major spike for both "man" and "woman" takes place in 1916, right in the middle of World War I.  The loosening of gender roles had a major push during this time due to the need for women to fill in jobs traditionally held by males while the men were away at war.  The second spike occurs in 1920, which, of course, is the year the U.S. instituted women's suffrage.  The dates of the major points for The Egoist regarding "man" and "woman" are less clearly correlated, but they both happen during WWI, again emphasizing the war's role in gender roles.  What I find most intriguing, though, is the fact that the correlation is far more clear in Poetry than it is in The Egoist--a magazine seemingly concerned only about poetics and aesthetics over the magazine that tries to claim a role in all the lofty issues.

"New" and "old," however, presented what looked like interesting spikes on their own, but less notable against one another.  The only point of much interest is that of Poetry where "old" far outstrips "new" for a change; this takes place in 1920, which aside from women's suffrage is home to the institution of prohibition.  My theory is that such major events, with the amoutn of resistance they met, might have triggered a good deal of concern and nostalgia for the past.

Part II

1. Word and document patterns

  • Most frequent words: new, colored, negro, man, men
  • Most notable peaks: year, negro, given, years, cents
  • Most distinctive words: colored, negro, new, york, people, race, white, south...
  • Number of documents: 508
  • Longest issues: Blast 1, Crisis 18.2
  • Higest vocabulary density: Others 3.6, Others 3.5

Given what I've seen of Poetry and The Egoist, I'd be quite wary of taking this collection of words as an accurate representation of the corpus--which confirms what Professor Drouin said in class about one or two magazines skewing the whole.  The weight of a magazine affects the whole, which can be dangerous when trying to place the corpus into types or themes!

2. Graphs

  • Man, Woman

  • New, Old

One thing I find worth noting is that, in both cases, the words that are less frequent have the most notable peaks.  While "old" is less frequent than "new" overall, its four most notable peaks surpass "new" a good deal; additionally, the two highest peaks for "old" are almost double and triple the highest peaks for "new."  In the case of "man" and "woman," "man" has three major spikes; however, the single most notable spike for "woman" is a little over a full 1% of the words for its point in time, while "man" is a little over .7%.  I'm not quite sure what to make of this, though...

3. Further study

The pair of terms that caught my interest while I was studying the full corpus was that of "work" and "art."  What struck me was the overall steadiness of the use of work, which was used more or less at a regular rate through the years, as opposed to art, which was in general slightly less frequently used, but which had spikes of usage which far outstripped that of work's best moments. 

What this told me was that work was a constantly relevant subject, used because it is a part of life and because it is necessary to address.  Art, on the other hand, was a highly emotional word, going through spikes of use as a country goes through revolutions and uprising.  It is a highly charged, passionate word that is well-loved all the time in the dark, but which also has the potential to rally up enormous numbers of supporters at the right time.

This led me to go back to The Egoist and Poetry to see how they held up against the general trend.  The Egoist was quite straightforward, giving a similar tendency--frequent, steady usage of "work," occasional uprisings of "art."

Poetry, however, threw me for a bit of a loop.

In Poetry, art is actually more frequent than work, which surprised me at first, since this is a break from the trend found in The Egoist and the full corpus; however, I realized it is rather useful to take the title of the magazine into consideration—Poetry is, of course, an ostensibly more art-oriented magazine, with a greater focus on aesthetics, poetics, and art than some of the more politically-oriented zines in the collection.  Under such a consideration, the exception makes much better sense.

4. Conclusion

My general conclusion from these analyses is that graphing is a fantastic, fascinating tool for literary study as it confirms some theories and suggests new ones; however, it is vitally important that any work done with graphs be taken back to the texts.  The graphs can suggest trends, significant dates, seemingly related data; however, any of this could prove to be coincidence or a matter of sample sizes, insufficiently varied samples, or something of the sort.  Weighted data can prove problematic and misleading.  Anyone working with these sorts of data analyses must be certain to check back against the text itself--this is why I checked my theories about the texts against skimming of the actual corpus material (of course, actually reading might be better!).  I'm quite excited about the potential of such work, though--it could prove helpful in identifying works that are important in different ways from thematic significance!  We can begin to find important books by word relevance, for example.  The possibilites are escaping the top of my head, but I do believe there are a good deal of them!

Lab 10/24

Part I
 
1.  Others is a poetry magazine, so I imagine that words are even more important (or loaded) than they might be in a prose publication.  The five most frequent words used in the magazine are “old,” “night,” “little,” and “love,” and “eyes.”  The three words with the most notable peak are “new,” “shall,” and “things.” Among the most distinctive words were “miggles” (?), “revenge,” and “river.”  Based on the data I have just mentioned, I can likely assume that the magazine uses metaphors and description to convey its message.
 
2. The longest issue is Vol 5 Issue 6, and the shortest is Vol 3 Issue 6.  Supposedly, the shortest issue has the highest vocabulary density. However, that really does not make sense based on the issues I have looked at. Ultimately, the spectrum demonstrates to me that all issues of Others’  publication are relatively short.
 
3.  Based on the Word trends graph created by the data, it is interesting that between the words “old” and “new” the word “old” is the word to experience two medium level inclines and two sharp inclines in usage.  The word “new” does indicate miniscule dips and increases, but generally, its usage does not vary so drastically.
1.  In The Crisis magazine, the most frequently used words are “colored,” “negro,” “new,” “white,” and “school.”    Distinctive words from various issues are most commonly “negro,” and “colored.”  Other distinctive words are of interest as well, such as “woman,” “law,” “social,” and “work.”  From this information, I think it would be safe to assume that readers of these publications (and the public in general) closely associate collective identity by skin color, and not necessarily ethnicity.
 
2.  This archive has 148 documents in it, making it a rather large collection to analyze.  The longest The longest publication is from Volume 18 Issue 2, and the shortest publication is from Vol 14 Issue 3.  Once again, the issue with the highest vocabulary density is from the shortest publication in the archive.  I think the size of the shortest issue of The Crisis (52 pages) indicates that the magazine had an extremely resourceful and perhaps better trained staff than other publications.  Fifty-two pages of information is still a significant amount to produce in a month’s time.
 
3.  I found it more difficult to interpret the graphs I created from various tag-cloud words.  There is so much more information represented by The Crisis graph, so I’ve had a harder time finding significant trends or irregularities.   I do think there might be something interesting to investigate about in the following graph, however.  I input the words “time” and “work” and found that for the most part, the word “work” takes precedent within The Crisis.  However, there are two issues (particularly) in which this is not the case.  I’m curious whether further investigation of the data might indicate some reason as to why “time” is more interesting or important to the reader than “work.”
 
Based on the data gathered from both of my sources it is obvious that both publications are concerned with very different things.  Whereas The Crisis indicates the importance of issues, Others seems to concern itself more with the way in which issues are recounted.  Although Others uses the word “old” more often than the word “new,” The Crisis seems to be more concerned with immediate words, (like “negro,” “school,” etc).
 
Part II

When I click on the link to view Voyant for the entire corpus, I am not shown a tag-cloud, however, I do see statistics displayed, such as the following:

1.  The word patterns throughout the corpus look very much like the word patterns I found in The Crisis.  For instance, the most frequently used words were “new,” “colored,” “negro,” “man,” and “men,” respectively.  In the case of the first magazine I researched (Others), the corpus indicates a difference in the frequency of the use of the word “new” (as “new” was not used so much as was the word “old”).

2.  The longest document in the corpus actually comes from Blast, however, the the shortest document in the corpus comes from Others (which I researched during Part I of the lab).  The document with the highest vocabulary density is from the same issue of Others.  I do not recall the word “year” showing a notable peak in frequency during the first part of the lab, so its usage may have come primarily from a publication I have yet to research.  It does appear as though researching The Crisis gave me a good idea of what the corpus as a whole might contain.

3.  It does seem as though The Crisis steers our study of the corpus as a whole, mainly because it composes the largest of all of the collections.  The Crisis seems to be a publication that is not necessarily modernist; rather, it was merely produced during the modernist era, so The Crisis might pervert a researchers understanding of general trends in modernist literature.  A question I have is why The Crisis is considered a modernist journal.  Nevertheless, a question I have that is based on the data is whether the number of times the term “man” is used (when “woman” is not) indicates that modern publications were not as gender-progressive as I would have suspected.  Of course, I remember our discussion of the romantic era’s obsession with the word “reason,” so I know that my question might be prove to be inadequate.  

However, the usage of “men” is much greater than the usage of “people,” and “people is much more common that the usage of the word“woman.” This doesn’t seem avant-garde to me.

 

Voyant Tools Search

(I could nto figure out how to embed my skins so i took snapshots of them sorry. Also not sure if I did this right so here I go!)

Part I.

 

The Egoist

1)      The most frequent words in The Egoist are life, man, new said and time. The most notable frequencies are new, given, way, course and le. The most distinctive words are law, art, progress, chastity and love as well as many others but those are the top ones for each issue.

 

This tells us that the words used most frequently in the magazine are times that coincide with the thoughts of what femininity is. However, if you look at the works in the volumes they do not really show this at all. In fact most of the works seem to not be about women despite this being a sister magazine to “The New Freewoman”. Which, I found to be an interesting contrast to The New Freewoman.

 

2)      There are 74 documents contained in the corpus. The longest documents in the corpus are vol. 1 no. 6 and vol.1 no. 16. The issues with the most vocabulary density are vol. 5 no. 18 and vol. 5 no. 9.

 

The issues that are in the various ones coincide with each other as they are similar in who they are presenting in their issues like William Carlos Williams was in all of the issue. It seems he’s a very popular poet for the magazine to use.

 

3)      Life and man are words that occurred frequently as the top words in this magazine and in The New Freewoman. I find that interesting considering the magazines were for women. After all the title of the magazine was “The New Freewoman”. The summary was pretty accurate with these words in being the most frequent and having them be distinctive words in certain issues.

4)     

 

The New Freewoman

1)       The most frequent words are man, men, life, women, new. The most notable peaks in frequency in “Blast” are make, little, say, things, think. The top five most distinctive words are freedom, art, democracy, women and women again.

 

The magazine while is a female focused magazine seems to refer to men quite often just like The Egoist did. I found it interesting that man was the highest word for this magazine unlike it was for The Egoist. Life wasn’t the second highest as men came before it which was even more intriguing since once again this was a woman’s magazine.

2)       There are only 13 documents in the corpus. The longest issue is vol. 1 no. 9. The issues with the highest vocabulary are vol.1 no.12 and vol.1 no. 11.

 

I found the information peculiar as the highest vocabulary was in the same volume but in reverse. 12 were higher in vocab than 11. When I looked into their issues I was surprised. No. 11 was a lot lighter in topic than no.12 as no. 12 was a lot more serious in topic than no. 11 although no. 11 was serious as well it was just less deeply in tuned with outer situations of womanhood.

3)       I chose this magazine because it was before The Egoist and because they had similar trends with the word man and life despite being a female magazine. It seems during the time of the magazines life was a topic repeated throughout each issue and

4)       

Blast

1)       The most frequent words are art, life, great, man and war. The most notable peaks in frequency are world, form, men, nature and new. Words with the highest vocabulary density are none. The top two words that are the most distinctive are arghol and war.

 

This information reveals that The Blast does not have a lot of words like the longer magazines I’ve chosen. Yet the words life and man are once again in the top of the most frequent words, which is something I noticed about The Blast magazine and chose it as well to compare with the others. Life and man during their times seemed to be important topics. However war seems to be dominant as well in the corpus being not just frequent but a top distinctive word.

 

2)       There are only 2 documents in the corpus. Blast 1 is the longest issue by word. Blast 2 has highest vocabulary density.

 

This information shows that while there are not a lot in The Blast, the last issue in the corpus has a strong use of words. Which is interesting as one would think the first issue would be it.

 

3)      Life and man has been my focus for this assignment and while The Blast has nothing to do with The Egoist and The New Freewoman, I feel that it is important to look at a third source where life and man was important. It shows that during it’s time the concentration of life and man in written works was an important part of the  

4)       

 

Part II.

 

1)      The most frequent words used in the whole of the corpus are new, colored, Negro, man, and men. The most notable peak in frequency was the word year. The top distinctive words were colored and Negro.

 

The corpus as a whole seemed concerned with the colored man, and life. This concern was interesting as it did not reveal that clearly in the magazines I had chosen. While man was indeed a subject that was frequent, the colored man was not. Life was still high in word use even though it wasn’t in the top five of th emsot frequent words along with man who ended up being in the top 5.

 

2)      There are 508 documents in the corpus. The longest document was The Blast 1. The highest vocabulary document was “Others” vol. 3.6.

 

Although Blast 1 on its own corpus was the longest as well I just was not expecting it to be the longest for the whole of it.

 

 

I was greatly surprised by the number of documents in the corpus as a whole. I was also surprised that the magazines “others” was chosen as the one with highest vocab and even more so surprised that Blast 1 was the longest document.

 

3)      Once again my focus was on life and man as the terms for the whole of the lab. These terms interested me because they always manage to be in the top. Even when life wasn’t on the top of the corpus as a whole man still managed to be in the top. Man seems to be an important word for the written works through the corpus as a whole as it’s often a highly used word. So it makes me think that the subject of man was important for people long ago even more so than today although man will always be an important subject in the end since we are man.

4)      

 

 

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