In Volume One, Number 19 of The Egoist magazine from October 1914, Dora Marsden argues in the article "Women's 'Rights'" that women are psychologically conditioned to believe that they are supposed to be weaker and lesser than men because of the patriarchy's grasp on women's minds. Marsden also argues that women's "rights" are not a thing because they should merely be human "rights" if any human has any rights at all (1). She claims that the war killed feminism because as soon as it started, no one was thinking about women's rights, rather, they were thinking about anyones rights. The war drew attention from the topic, and now it is forgotten about and barely anyone is fighting as hard for it anymore, and it caused people to believe that no one initially had "rights," and so arguing for women's rights was a moot point. Marsden believes that women see themselves as "valuable property," and a man's "possession" which causes them to adhere to the societal structure better and not rebel. Instead of being complacent, Marsden claims, women should use "physical force" to pry themselves away from the "womanly" label (3).
In McClure's Magazine, Vol. 17, No. 3, edited by Samuel Sydney, there is a two page ad for the Kodak camera on pages 47 and 48. The large size and relative simplicity of the ad draws the eye. The audience is drawn to look at the left side first, because of the more complex border and spacing. A picture of a lady in fine clothing holding a parasol is the centerpiece of the spread. Her picture is framed in a wreath of flowers, and the detail and framing means you look at her first. Right below her in very small font it names her as the Kodak Girl. Below that is a large, simple sentence - "Take a Kodadk with you" - that draws you due to its simplicity. On the bottom in small print is information on pricing and location of the company. On the right side, the first thing the audience sees is a proclamation in large, bold font on the superiority of Kodak products. Kodakery is in larger, orange font. Right below it in very small font it lists a little bit of information about the product and its film, but it still doesn't show very much. The same pricing and location information is on the bottom of this page as on the previous page.
In the 1910 issue of Good Housekeeping, Vol. 51 No. 2, there is an ad for Occident Flour on advertisement pages 11 and 12. The advertisement is placed in the back of the magazine after the editorial content, and spans over two pages. On the first page, a large "C" shape encompasses the text, which asks the reader to show the ad to her husband, as well as using convincing language to convice the reader herself that she needs to try the flour. On the second page, a drawing of this exact action, a woman showing her husband the ad, is depicted, as well as a bag of Occident Flour outlined in bold black. The page also contains a coupon for a free bag of flour with no expense to the grocer providing it. The audience for Good Housekeeping is middle aged women, which the ad uses to its advantage by talking directly to a woman, telling her to show the ad to her husband. The text is scrambled throughout the ad, guaranteeing satisfaction with the flour at least 4 times on one page. Overall, the ad serves its purpose of getting people to try Occident Flour with its unique visuals and persuasive language.
In the magazine,"The Cosmopolitan" Vol. 51 No. 1 which was edited by Narcross C. P. there is a particularly alluring advertisement that in some ways show the influence between the actual content itself and the advertisements in that magazine. This magazine was created in June 1st 1911 and this magazine seems to be directed toward more of the middle class and their culture and mentality at the time. This is apparent as a lot of the editorial content describes people going into higher education, or about senators costing the taxpayer thousands of dollars. This becomes increasingly apparent in the advertising, but in this particular example, it is quite intriguing as this advertisement is about selling people Coca Cola. This advertisement, on page four, is a pleasant picture of a seemingly middle class woman talking with a middle class man at a what is called a soda fountain, which seems to be what an equivalent of a bar would be if it only sold soda beverages. It describes how it makes walks so much more enjoyable when people could take a break and have some Coca Cola. It is pleasant and welcoming in its presentation, with an air of cultural importance as in the background, many people are observing the two people having a pleasant drink. What relates this to the editorial content and its audience is the contrast between the advertisement and the content within and this becomes increasingly apparent with the intent and general message of the advertisement itself. This advertisement shows no regal persona in it, rather the people are casual, in their clothes and their general posture, but the people in the background seem to be very fixated on the two people in the forefront, as if in partaking in this beverage, these people in the forefront seem to be elevated culturally, which would appeal to the aspiring rich class that many of the other advertisements also do. This magazine seems to try to distract from the more chaotic time that these people where in to draw them in by showing how nice this moment would be with a soda product. This contrasts from the content of the magazine as it shows many stories of events that could impact their lives, or how they should quickly learn new skills to keep up with the ever-quickening pace of the Industrial Revolution. This seems to be placed so early in the magazine because it shows what seems to be a nice moment before all of rampant change in the times. That might make the audience want to go back to that moment in the beginning of the magazine and maybe have that beverage in a pleasant soda fountain.
In The Crisis, the advertisement "Atlanta University Stuides of the Negro Problems" by A. G. Dill describes a book filled with several articles relating to African American life. This clearly shows that the audience was African Americans which makes sense since The Crisis itself is targetted towards this same audience. Even the surrounding advertisements focus on the same topics as they pretain to "Negroes in New York" and a novel by W. E. Burghardt and Du Bois. Publications included within the collection are listed below the bold text to draw in those who can recognize the authors' names. The design of the ad itself is standard with the bold heading to draw the eyes and other details listed below that heading. It is notable that the borders of the ad are less interesting to look at than that of its surrounding advertisements. It has the vague form of the book but the advertisement to the left of it is even more so. While the ad is formatted standardly, it heavily caters to the audience that would read The Crisis and that may be all it needs to draw in buyers.
Had some trouble embedding image. Painting located on pg. 49. Cape of Good Hope, by Edward Wadsworth.
The title of this painting is Cape of Good Hope, which is the name of a rocky cape in South Africa. This is pretty clearly not a painting of a nature scene. The bold outlines, colorblock shading style, and inorganic curves and lines give a much more industrial feel and the clustered blocks almost give an impression of a crowded cityscape. This is an example of vorticism, which focuses around embracing the control and regularity of industry. While the painting may be cluttered, it still manages to not feel claustrophobic. The Cape of Good Hope has been taken over by technology, but it's not a bad thing, just a sign of progress.
Vorticism is about rejecting Futurism but still embracing many aspects of industrialization. It also takes heavy influence from Cubism's structure. This piece's bold colors, rigid lines, and sharp angles all contribute to its Vorticism. As you look at it, you can find more sharp lines and edges which is most likely why it is name "Slow Attack." The blocks can also be seen to form winding stairs or buildings and furthering the idea of its Vorticism influence.
In the modernist journal, Blast, No. 1. A piece titled," March" by Edward Wadsworth, shows a array of abstract curved objects in what appears to be a dark place, with a small crack of light illuminating the otherwise dark place. It almost looks as though the objects are alive in some ways as they curve and distort. It gives the feeling that the objects in the piece are almost trying to reach for the light even if they are unfamiliar with what they are experiencing. This has distinct ties with Vorticism as it displays these harsh, ragged pieces of machinery that got displayed by some light source off page.
This piece gives an overwhelming feeling of something being cast away and finally being revealed, even for a moment. This seems to tie with the movement of Vorticism as it was a modernist British movement that focused on displaying the culture and spirit of that era through this rough mechanical content. In the Industrial Revolution, it would make sense that people of that time would feel like those warped mechanical pieces that are craving for the chance to be revealed even if only dimly. There is something to say about how these art pieces seem to show so little, but reveal so much at the same time. "March" seems to be a intriguing piece about the time that it took place in the movement of Vorticism.
Vorticism is defined by Brittanica as an "attempt to relate art to industrialization." It stemmed from cubism and futurism, and in BLAST, the manifesto lays out what Vorticism is all about in the founder's, Wyndham Lewis's, own words.
On page 56 of the first edition of BLAST, there is an artwork by Wyndham Lewis himself, titled "Plan of War." The sharp, thick lines create a very structured and clean look, relating to the commentary on industrialization. Lewis titled this piece "Plan of War," which must indicate that he is attempting to relay a powerful, commanding message to anyone who sees this in order to reinforce his views he laid out in the manifesto earlier in the issue. His artworks in this issue allowed me to grasp what vorticism is because the manifesto was confusing, so the physicality of the art and the demanding shapes and lines allow me to understand what it is.
Implied Readership: Both higher class and lower class people at different times. Not much else can be seen. The early price for this magazine ($1.50 for a subscription, 15 cents for a copy) shows that this magazine is attempting to reach a wider, lower-class audience. The price raising over time, the print quality getting higher, and the ads which are mostly for articles and books (and the occasional magazine), show that the magazine is trying to target people who are on the higher end of the spectrum.
Circulation: No explicit data about circulation could be found, though the content was very polarizing so this probably wasn't the most popular magazine.
Regular Contributors: James Joyce is probably the most famous contributor. He published Ulysses in The Little Review, and the 'explicit' content resulted in a lawsuit against the magazine. Other contributors include Djuna Barnes, T. S. Eliot, Wyndham Lewis, Mina Loy, Francis Picabia, Dorothy Richardson, May Sinclair, Gertrude Stein, W. C. Williams, and W. B. Yeats. Ezra Pound and Jane Heap don't contribute any content, but they do become co-editors.
Contents: The content (the "obscene" Ulysses, and the partially blank September 1916) shows that it's attempting to reach an audience that is looking for more experimental works. Editions frequently feature anarchism and feminism. Literature shown is often highly plotically contriversal, and styles and subjects are experimental.
Editor: Margaret Anderson is the only editor ever listed. She's a publicly expressive anarchist and feminist. She was probably a very polarizing presence. She's uncompromising (or wants to appear that way), and if something isn't up to her standards she won't show it.
Format: Images seem to be shown more and more over the years, but the meat of the magazine is literature. Both poetry and articles are featured frequently. Magazine seems inconsistent on format. One issue might be in the mid thirties for number of pages, and the issue after might be brushing seventy.
History: Magazine began 1914 and ended 1922. This magazine saw the start of World War 1, and showed the effects of that. Many early editions are heavy on anarchistic themes, and one edition held an apology from the editor for having to raise the prices of subscriptions due to the war.
Putting it all together: A very polarizing magazine. Often having strong magazine with strong political undertones and extremely experimental or shocking content, this was a magazine that the general public probably didn't have the best opinion of. It's influence is undeniable, however. Managing to get a lawsuit against it, it spread its influence far, even if people didn't like it.
The Modernist Journals Project (searchable database). Brown and Tulsa Universities, ongoing. www.modjourn.or
Anderson, Margaret. The Little Review.
La Casse, Christopher J. "“Scrappy and Unselective”: Rising Wartime Paper Costs and the Little Review." American Periodicals: A Journal of History & Criticism, vol. 26 no. 2, 2016, p. 208-221. Project MUSE muse.jhu.edu/article/628768.
Keenan, Owen. "Margaret C. Anderson." Legacy Project Chicago. https://legacyprojectchicago.org/person/margaret-c-anderson. Accessed 9, Sept. 2021.